“Chicken” Tracks

Small, interrupted indentations or raised areas, appearing as a pattern, on a flat wood workpiece after sanding. Normally associated with wide belt or oscillating drum sander applications.


A device for holding a workpiece being ground.


A process by which two or more (usually dissimilar, i.e., stainless steel and copper) metals are bonded together with heat and pressure, to form a composite surface without the use of adhesive.

Climb Grinding

The workpiece moves in the same direction that the belt is running.

Closed Coat

A coated abrasive product completely covered by abrasive grain on the coat side.

Coated Abrasives

Products formed by bonding abrasive grain with an adhesive to a flexible or semi-rigid backing.

Color Buff (Coloring)

Refers to an operation that generates high luster or ultra-fine finishes on metal surfaces using buffing wheels and compounds.


A strong coated abrasive backing made by adhering print cloth to 110 pound paper.

Combination Sanding Head

A wide belt grinding head that offers the option of using the contact roll or platen either individually or in tandem.


An equipment option on wide belt sanders that reduces the feed speed of the work transport system when excessively oversized work enters the machine. This feature improves coated abrasive belt life and reduces machine wear.

Chrome Oxide

A high purity, ultra fine finishing media that lends itself to coating procedures.


Pieces of material removed by an individual abrasive grain during the abrasive grinding operation.

Cabinet Room

The assembly area in a furniture plant where case goods are sanded in-the-white, prior to staining.

Calendar Roll

Steel, rubber or rolls of other composition in tandem through which materials pass to produce uniform thickness and/or a smooth, glossy surface. A roll, usually rubber, that applies the bond to a coated abrasive backing prior to the grain coating.


?Coated Abrasives Manufacturer?s Institute?. A trade association composed of U.S. coated abrasives manufacturers.

Cartridge Roll

A strip of coated abrasive wound in multiple wraps around a center hole and glued. Mounted on a mandrel used on a high speed portable tool for intricate polishing. See also Pencils.


A shaped part produced by placing molten metal or a castable substance in a form or mold and allowing it to solidify by cooling.

Centerless Grinding

Abrasive grinding and finishing the outside diameter of a round workpiece not mounted on conventional centers.


Conical steel pins of a grinding machine upon which the workpiece is ?centered? and rotated during grinding.


An undesirable, repetitive pattern created on the surface of a workpiece, usually at regularly-spaced intervals, due to an out-of-round or out-of-balance condition in the abrasive machine.

Concave (Curl)

A coated abrasive product with a curved (curled) configuration in which the abrasive grain is in the inside curve (grain side concave).


The relative content of a component usually expressed as a percentage of total (i.e. grain coverage, amount of filler in adhesive bonds, etc.)

Contact Wheel

The wheel, usually rubber, metal, or felt, over which a coated abrasive belt runs and against which work is applied. Aggressiveness varies with density, angle, and depth of serration (if any) and ratio of groove-width to land-width.


Refers to convex or concave curvature or twisting of a coated abrasive product.

Cutt Buff

A type of cloth buffing wheel used in conjunction with an aggressive buffing compound to remove or refine scratch pattern produced by polishing in preparation for color buffing or plating.

Cutting Rate

The amount of material removed by a coated abrasive from the workpiece, per unit of time.

Cylindrical Grinding

Grinding the outside surface of a cylindrical part mounted on centers.

Crushed Joint

A method of reducing belt joint thickness slightly without top skiving the joint. Used also to reduce abrasive grain aggressiveness at the belt joint to prevent joint loading or marking of the workpiece.


That part of a sheet or idler roll face where the thickness or diameter increases from edge to center. Crowned idlers are used for tracking narrow belts.

Contour Sanding (Mold)

The sanding of irregular shaped parts or compound moldings.

Conventional Grinding

The workpiece moves in the opposite direction from which the belt is running.

Conveyor Belt

Usually an endless belt configuration that positions, holds, moves, and finally clears workpieces through the abrasive heads on a grinding machine.

Conveyor Machine

A coated abrasive grinding machine on which the workpiece is moved by a conveyor belt under the abrading head of the machine.

Convex (Curl)

A coated abrasive product with a curved (curled) configuration in which the abrasive grain is on the outside curve (grain side convex).


A liquid grinding aid to improve abrasive performance.

Creasing of a Belt

Folding of the belt in use; typically, the crease is not parallel to the belt edge. Most often caused by machine wear or misalignment but can be caused by uneven side to side belt length.


Essentially, iron oxide in natural or synthetic form, crocus coated products are used mostly for cleaning or finish polishing of metal surfaces where a minimum of stock removal is desired.

Cross Scratch

Refers to a scratch created by sanding across or 90 degrees to the direction of the wood grain.

VSM Abrasives Co.
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